Heatstroke: What it looks like and what you should do
(CNN) — Heatstroke deaths often surge in summer months as temperatures rise.
Your normal body temperature is around 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit; with heatstroke the body can warm up to 106 degrees F or higher in 10 to 15 minutes. If not treated immediately, heatstroke can lead to death or permanent disability.
Heatstroke symptoms include an elevation of body temperature, lack of sweating, headaches, nausea and vomiting. Neurological symptoms, such as confusion and unconsciousness, can also result from extreme exposure to heat, according to the Mayo Clinic.
Elderly people and young children as well as people with chronic severe illnesses have the highest risk of developing the condition. People with kidney, liver and heart problems in particular should be extra aware of the heat, and they should talk with their doctors about heat exposure.
In 2013, the number of confirmed heatstroke deaths of children left in cars was 39, reports Jan Null, a certified consulting meteorologist with San Francisco State University.
In severe cases, patients must be admitted to the intensive care unit, where medical staff watch body temperature carefully. A 48-hour hospital stay would usually be necessary, says Dr. Janyce Sanford, chair of emergency medicine at the University of Alabama, Birmingham.
“If you can get them to treatment fairly quickly, they’ll survive it,” Sanford said. Chronic illnesses can complicate recovery, however.
Treatment focuses on cooling the patient down to a normal body temperature. If the patient has a clear airway, breathes normally and has normal circulation, medical staff will remove his or her clothes and spray cool water while a fan is blowing, Sanford said. Cool intravenous fluids can also help bring body temperature down.
To protect yourself, try to avoid strenuous physical activity outside during the hottest time of the day — between 10 a.m. and 6 p.m.
People who must work outside should make sure to drink plenty of water every half-hour or so and take breaks in a cool environment if possible, Sanford said. Wearing lightweight, light-colored clothing and a wide-brimmed hat can also help, according to the Mayo Clinic.
The CDC also stresses that no one should be left in a closed, parked vehicle.
You can tell if you’re dehydrated by looking at your urine. If you’ve had adequate amounts of water, your urine will be light in color; a darker yellow or orange means you need to drink more.
And make sure you check on the elderly, especially if they don’t have air conditioning. They should spend time in cool places such as a library or a mall to get a break from the heat, she said.